Democratization

What is Democracy?
Freedom is a food easy to eat but hard to digest. -Jean Jacques Rousseau

Democracy
Greek for “rule by the people”
Government by the people
A form of government where ultimate power is vested in the people
A state characterized by equality of rights and privileges - political equality

Michael Mandelbaum : Democracy’s Good Name
Democracy=
Popular Sovereignty +
Liberty

People Rule+
Freedom and Rights

Who+
How

Democracy’s Preconditions
What are necessary conditions for a democracy?
  • Basic human security
  • Functioning state with power and rule of law
  • Agreement on nationhood - of who the people are
  • Political culture embracing democracy
  • Free and fair elections
  • Basic Equality
  • Education and informed populous
  • Respect for human rights - Civil Liberties and Rights (I and IV Amendment)

Samuel P. Huntington - The Third Wave of Democratization

First Wave
19th century culminating in new democracies after WWI
UK, France, US, New Zealand, Germany, Italy

Second Wave 1943-1960s Newly independent states from colonization: Nigeria, India, Uruguay, Chile, Greece
And defeated authoritarian states: Japan, Germany, Italy
Reverse wave à 1960s and 1970s most of the new democracies lapsed back into authoritarianism in a reverse wave that swept these democracies away.
Why was there a reverse wave?

Third Wave 1974-? Southern Europe, East Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa
Will there be/is there a reverse wave?
What might cause the reverse wave?
How does this connect to Jihad VS McWorld?

What are the enemies of democracy?
  • Poverty
  • History
  • Inequality
  • Power
Recent glitches in democracy
  • Algerian elections in 1992. Democracy stopped to preserve liberty. 120,000 dead.
  • Iraq in 2004
  • Afghanistan
  • Burma
  • North Korea
  • Iran
  • Authoritarian Russia
Paradox - Which is better freedom or democracy?

Spreading Freedom

  • How do we spread freedom?
  • Should we trade with communist nations?
  • What is relationship between freedom and capitalism?
Map of  Freedom
Freedom in the World Global Data
Map of Freedom
Freedom House Methodology

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